Commercial real estate (CRE) is an income-producing property used solely for business (rather than residential) purposes. Examples include retail malls, shopping centers, office buildings and complexes, and hotels. Financing – including the acquisition, development, and construction of these properties – is typically accomplished through commercial real estate loans: mortgages secured by liens on the commercial property. Debt-Service Coverage Ratio Commercial lenders also look at the debt-service coverage ratio (DSCR), which compares a property’s annual net operating income (NOI) to its annual mortgage debt service (including principal and interest), measuring the property’s ability to service its debt. It is calculated by dividing the NOI by the annual debt service. For example, a property with $140,000 in NOI and $100,000 in annual mortgage debt service would have a DSCR of 1.4 ($140,000 ÷ $100,000 = 1.4). The ratio helps lenders determine the maximum loan size based on the cash flow generated by the property. A DSCR of less than 1 indicates a negative cash flow. For example, a DSCR of .92 means that there is only enough NOI to cover 92% of annual debt service. In general, commercial lenders look for DSCRs of at least 1.25 to ensure adequate cash flow. A lower DSCR may be acceptable for loans with shorter amortization periods and/or properties with stable cash flows. Higher ratios may be required for properties with volatile cash flows – for example, hotels, which lack the long-term (and therefore, more predictable) tenant leases commonly to other types of commercial real estate.